Instrumental examination is carried out on the second stage of the construction expertise. The first, preliminary stage, is executed by visual methods or with application of simple tools (tape rule, level board, plummet and other tools). According to its results the decision is made as to the necessity of random or detailed analysis of the structure state by means of high-precision devices and tools.

What the instrumental examination of the buildings is executed for

The main aim of the instrumental examination is to determine the technical state of the building and to forecast possible change in its operation properties in future.

Visual examination and general fixation of the visual defects can not give comprehensive information about the actual state of the structure, its strength and reliability. To get this information the methods of instrumental analysis should be used. The results of the instrumental examination only will give the owner the possibility to take the reasoned decision about carrying out this or that type of works. As well as receive the authorisation for it from the supervision agency.

Here is the list of cases when full (complete) or partial (random) examination with instrumental means usage is obligatory:

  • design documentation is lost or it is necessary to legalize "a squatter development";
  • visible defects are detected that influence the structure bearing capacity;
  • there are visible destructions of separate structures or the whole building;
  • the building was damaged as a result of technology-related processes influence (fire, flood, earthquake etc.);
  • major repairs, replanning or reconstruction with loads increase are planned (more storeys etc.);
  • continues the construction that was suspended for more than 3 years (if no conservation measures were taken);
  • buildings examination after fire.

Instrumental Examination Stages

The building examination by instrumental methods consists of several main types of works.

1. Measuring works Measurements of actual dimensions and other geometric parameters of the construction structure are made. Their conformity with the design is determined. The dimensions of passages, sections, distances between the important joints are specified, alignment and verticality of support structures, ceiling height etc. are checked. The measurements of deformations and deflections of the support structures, foundation settlement are made.

2. Analysis of Physical and Mechanical Properties of the Building Structure Materials. The experts have technical possibility to carry out the instrumental examination of the structures made of any material:

  • concrete and reinforced concrete;
  • various kinds of metal;
  • brick and stone;

While executing these works two methods are used:

  • non-destructive method ( with a scleroscope, Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic tester), PIB - separation with chipping);
  • destructive one that supposes sampling (borehole samples) from the structures and their examination in the specialized laboratory of the company.

The destructive method is used to get the most precise indications of the physical and mechanical properties of the structures materials. The tests results are recorded in the form of test protocols or engineering report and are used in the check calculations for determination of the bearing capacity, stiffness and reliability of the structures.

3. Defects Recording. The defects detected in the examination process are photographed. The photos are then attached to the engineering opinion. The defect list is drawn on the detected defects and damages.

4. Results Summary. The analysis of the received results is made, the engineering opinion is drawn.

Technical Estimation

This is the final document of the building instrumental inspection. The document received by the customer contains the following data:

  • Brief description of the objects;
  • Results of building constructions inspection;
  • Damage statements with description of detected defects, deviations and damages;
  • Technical report or test records based on the results of laboratory researches and tests;
  • Verification calculations of supporting structures (assessment of the load-bearing capacity of the structures and foundation soils);
  • Analysis of the inspection results;
  • Conclusion about technical state of the building structures, its category and possibility of the building structure to bear the additional loads attributable to reconstruction);
  • Guidelines for elimination of defects and damages detected in the course of inspection;
  • Appendixes (Technical specifications, schemes, photographic materials, approval documents for conduction of certain types of works).

Technical estimation gives a possibility to the customer to determine an optimal mode of the building safety operation and accurately specify the types of works, which shall be conducted mandatorily to prevent failure and accident situations.

The inspection both of the whole building and of its separate parts can be carried out:

  • Premises’ inspection
  • A part of the floor or the whole floor of the building
  • Inspection of an attic or an attic storey
  • Inspection of basements and technical cellars
  • Inspection of roofs and lofts of the building
  • Inspection of steel constructions
  • Inspection of tambours, additional buildings, entry elements.
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